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  • 【经验分享】PC通过使用“远程ADB”(ADB over network)时连接设备时出现“unauthorized”,且设备不出现授权对话框问题的解决方法:
    (1)ADB客户端和服务端(安卓设备的adbd服务)之间的权鉴是通过公钥私钥对比进行的;
    (2)如果安卓设备保存有ADB客户端的公钥(Linux:  ~/.android/adbkey.pub, Windows: C:\Users\Administrator\.android\adbkey.pub),则直接通过验证。
    (3)如果安卓设备没有ADB客户端的公钥,则弹出"Allow USB debugging?对话框",如果选择同意,则授权通过并自动保存客户端公钥到指定位置(保存于/data/misc/adb/adb_keys文件内)。
    (4)"Allow USB debugging?对话框"只在通过USB连接设备的时候才会出现,“远程ADB”(ADB over network)模式不会出现,这样就无法像USB连接模式那样进行授权。
    (5)只要我们事先把ADB客户端的公钥文件adbkey.pub复制到设备的/data/misc/adb/adb_keys文件内,重启ADB客户端,重连设备,将会自动通过验证。

    上述步骤笔者在Bliss OS X86 系统下进行过多次实测。
    发布时间:2020-01-19 19:35:14
  • 【经验分享】Bliss OS X86系统如何开启自动开始“远程ADB”(ADB over network)?
    在开发者选项中可以手动开启“ADB over network”,但是重启后会自动关闭(This setting is reset on reboot)。
    解决方法:
    在/etc/init.sh中加入
    setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
    stop adbd
    start adbd

    重启后“ADB over network”将会自动启动!

    PS:原生的Android X86系统默认情况下开机“ADB over network”就是开启的,不需要像Bliss OS这样的额外设置。
    发布时间:2020-01-17 14:05:28
  • 【经验分享】Android X86模拟器如何修改屏幕分辨率大小?
    目的:设置屏幕分辨率为 1080x1920
    方法:
    (1) Alt + F1,切换到终端模式;
    (2) su,获取root权限;]
    (3)执行wm size 1080x1920,再按Alt + F7返回图形界面即可;

    如果想要在启动的时候自动设置,可以把上述命令添加到/etc/init.sh中,Bliss OS中亲测有效。
    发布时间:2020-01-15 12:59:26
  • 【经验分享】“KVM(QEMU) + Bliss OS X86 + MockLocation APP"打造支持虚拟定位的Android模拟器,用于APP数据采集小试牛刀: 采集某外卖平台数据。
    MockLocation APP是什么?  详见我这篇文章 >>> http://www.site-digger.com/html/articles/20200110/777.html ​​​​
    发布时间:2020-01-13 10:59:56
  • 【经验分享】推荐一款开源Android x86系统Bliss OS (x86),项目主页是https://blissroms-x86.github.io/

    经过实测我觉得Bliss有如下优点:
    (1) 比原生的Android x86(https://www.android-x86.org/)稳定,特别是应用兼容性较好,好多在原生Android x86下闪退的App,在Bliss下都能稳定运行。如图3和4所示,美团APP可以稳定运行,而在原生Android x86下会不停崩溃,无法正常工作。因此Bliss更适合作为安卓模拟器。
    (2) 支持平板模式和桌面UI两种模式,可以在设置里自由切换。这点比Phoenix OS要好,Phoenix OS貌似只有桌面模式,不适合作为安卓模拟器。
    (3) 无内置广告。吐槽一下Phoenix OS,刚开始没有广告,用一段时间就会提示让你购买会员,否则就会出现关不掉的广告。

    Bliss的缺点:
    (1) 启动比较慢,实测约50秒。
    (2) 不要升级内置的SuperSU,我试了多次,一升级重启后就卡在系统Logo界面,无法正常进入系统。
    发布时间:2020-01-12 10:50:54
  • 【经验分享】qemu-system-x86_64使用网桥出现
    failed to parse default acl file `/etc/qemu/bridge.conf`
    qemu-system-x86_64: -net bridge,br=br0: bridge helper failed
    问题(如附图1所示)的解决方法:

    原因是缺少/etc/qemu/bridge.conf文件。

    (1) mkdir /etc/qemu
    (2) echo 'allow br0' > /etc/qemu/bridge.conf
    发布时间:2020-01-12 10:05:12
  • 【开源分享】发布一款Android X86虚拟定位的App,支持命令行设置经纬度参数,无需UI操作,专为安卓App自动化模拟操作设计。

    用法举例:

    # 切换定位到"秦始皇陵"(34.384225, 109.254423)  
    adb shell am start -n cn.webscraping.qi.mocklocation/cn.webscraping.qi.mocklocation.MainActivity --es lat 34.384225 --es lng 109.254423  

    详细介绍见 >>> http://t.cn/AisHGPoY
    发布时间:2020-01-10 15:15:48
  • 【经验分享】Chrome + Remote Debugging模式(注意:不是Selenium + Chromedriver模式)登录淘宝出现“验证码爆错”(如附图所示)。原因Chrome V79版本在Remote Debugging模式时会爆出navigator.webdriver属性,从而被风控。换用V72或V73版本可以顺利登录!(前一条微博也说得是这个事儿) ​​​​
    发布时间:2020-01-02 15:20:22
  • 【经验分享】不经意见发现Chrome v73版本在Remote Debugging模式下(注意:不是Selenium + Chromedriver模式)不会暴露出navigator.webdriver!如附图1所示。

    作为对比,我又测试了其它的版本:
    (1)如图2所示,是Chrome V63版本,在Remote Debugging模式下会暴露出navigator.webdriver;
    (2)如图3所示,是Chrome V79版本,在Remote Debugging模式下也会暴露出navigator.webdriver;
    发布时间:2019-12-31 18:03:03
  • 【Mark收藏】MurmurHash3.js - A javascript implementation of MurmurHash3's hashing algorithms.    >>>  http://t.cn/z8Yont3

    Usage
    // Return a 32bit hash as a unsigned int:
    > murmurHash3.x86.hash32("I will not buy this record, it is scratched.")
      2832214938

    // Return a 128bit hash as a unsigned hex:
    > murmurHash3.x86.hash128("I will not buy this tobacconist's, it is scratched.")
      "9b5b7ba2ef3f7866889adeaf00f3f98e"
    > murmurHash3.x64.hash128("I will not buy this tobacconist's, it is scratched.")
      "d30654abbd8227e367d73523f0079673"

    // Specify a seed (defaults to 0):
    > murmurHash3.x86.hash32("My hovercraft is full of eels.", 25)
      2520298415

    // Rebind murmurHash3:
    > somethingCompletelyDifferent = murmurHash3.noConflict()
    > murmurHash3
      undefined
    > somethingCompletelyDifferent.version
      "2.1.2"
    发布时间:2019-12-31 11:11:58
当前位置: 首页 > 技术文章 >
squid external_acl_type介绍及后台程序编写示例
发布时间:2016-10-17

        近日我在查询Squid相关问题时无意在谷歌搜索结果中看到external_acl_type,然后详细了解了一下,发现它功能是在太强大了。
        利用external_acl_type可以自定义一种Squid的ACL类型,并且可以指定一个自定义的后端程序(Helper Program)。我们可以向这个后端程序动态传递很多有用的参数,例如客户端IP (%SRC,) 服务端IP( %MYADDR),客户端访问的URL( %PATH),访问者的用户名( %LOGIN)等变量,然后在认证程序中我们可以根据这些变量实现复杂的逻辑认证。PS:我在网上找了很久都没找到介绍这些变量参数含义的,最后抱着试一试的想法在squid.conf的注释中找到的详细的说明(如下FORMAT specifications部分)。

#  TAG: external_acl_type
#       This option defines external acl classes using a helper program
#       to look up the status
#
#         external_acl_type name [options] FORMAT.. /path/to/helper [helper arguments..]
#
#       Options:
#
#         ttl=n         TTL in seconds for cached results (defaults to 3600
#                       for 1 hour)
#         negative_ttl=n
#                       TTL for cached negative lookups (default same
#                       as ttl)
#         children-max=n
#                       Maximum number of acl helper processes spawned to service
#                       external acl lookups of this type. (default 20)
#         children-startup=n
#                       Minimum number of acl helper processes to spawn during
#                       startup and reconfigure to service external acl lookups
#                       of this type. (default 0)
#         children-idle=n
#                       Number of acl helper processes to keep ahead of traffic
#                       loads. Squid will spawn this many at once whenever load
#                       rises above the capabilities of existing processes.
#                       Up to the value of children-max. (default 1)
#         concurrency=n concurrency level per process. Only used with helpers
#                       capable of processing more than one query at a time.
#         cache=n       limit the result cache size, default is unbounded.
#         grace=n       Percentage remaining of TTL where a refresh of a
#                       cached entry should be initiated without needing to
#                       wait for a new reply. (default is for no grace period)
#         protocol=2.5  Compatibility mode for Squid-2.5 external acl helpers
#         ipv4 / ipv6   IP protocol used to communicate with this helper.
#                       The default is to auto-detect IPv6 and use it when available.
#
#       FORMAT specifications
#
#         %LOGIN        Authenticated user login name
#         %EXT_USER     Username from previous external acl
#         %EXT_LOG      Log details from previous external acl
#         %EXT_TAG      Tag from previous external acl
#         %IDENT        Ident user name
#         %SRC          Client IP
#         %SRCPORT      Client source port
#         %URI          Requested URI
#         %DST          Requested host
#         %PROTO        Requested protocol
#         %PORT         Requested port
#         %PATH         Requested URL path
#         %METHOD       Request method
#         %MYADDR       Squid interface address
#         %MYPORT       Squid http_port number
#         %PATH         Requested URL-path (including query-string if any)
#         %USER_CERT    SSL User certificate in PEM format
#         %USER_CERTCHAIN SSL User certificate chain in PEM format
#         %USER_CERT_xx SSL User certificate subject attribute xx
#         %USER_CA_xx   SSL User certificate issuer attribute xx
#
#         %>{Header}    HTTP request header "Header"
#         %>{Hdr:member}
#                       HTTP request header "Hdr" list member "member"
#         %>{Hdr:;member}
#                       HTTP request header list member using ; as
#                       list separator. ; can be any non-alphanumeric
#                       character.
#
#         %<{Header}    HTTP reply header "Header"
#         %<{Hdr:member}
#                       HTTP reply header "Hdr" list member "member"
#         %<{Hdr:;member}
#                       HTTP reply header list member using ; as
#                       list separator. ; can be any non-alphanumeric
#                       character.
#
#         %ACL          The name of the ACL being tested.
#         %DATA         The ACL arguments. If not used then any arguments
#                       is automatically added at the end of the line
#                       sent to the helper.
#                       NOTE: this will encode the arguments as one token,
#                       whereas the default will pass each separately.
#
#         %%            The percent sign. Useful for helpers which need
#                       an unchanging input format.
#
#       In addition to the above, any string specified in the referencing
#       acl will also be included in the helper request line, after the
#       specified formats (see the "acl external" directive)
#
#       The helper receives lines per the above format specification,
#       and returns lines starting with OK or ERR indicating the validity
#       of the request and optionally followed by additional keywords with
#       more details.
#
#       General result syntax:
#
#         OK/ERR keyword=value ...
#
#       Defined keywords:
#
#         user=         The users name (login)
#         password=     The users password (for login= cache_peer option)
#         message=      Message describing the reason. Available as %o
#                       in error pages
#         tag=          Apply a tag to a request (for both ERR and OK results)
#                       Only sets a tag, does not alter existing tags.
#         log=          String to be logged in access.log. Available as
#                       %ea in logformat specifications
#
#       If protocol=3.0 (the default) then URL escaping is used to protect
#       each value in both requests and responses.
#
#       If using protocol=2.5 then all values need to be enclosed in quotes
#       if they may contain whitespace, or the whitespace escaped using \.
#       And quotes or \ characters within the keyword value must be \ escaped.
#
#       When using the concurrency= option the protocol is changed by
#       introducing a query channel tag infront of the request/response.
#       The query channel tag is a number between 0 and concurrency-1.
#Default:
# none

配置示例:

        下面这个配置结合了“用户名密码认证(HTTP Basic Auth)”和“自定义的认证”。只有同时通过这两个认证的请求才会被Squid放行(否则会返回403)。

        external_acl_type自定义认证部分后端程序使用自己编写的Python脚本(后面有源码),并将%LOGIN(客户用户名),%SRC(客户端IP) ,%MYADDR(服务端IP)作为命令行参数传递给后端认证程序。

#用户名密码认证:
auth_param basic program /usr/lib/squid/ncsa_auth /etc/squid/users.pwd
auth_param basic children 5
auth_param basic realm IPRENT.CN Proxy Auth Required
auth_param basic credentialsttl 2 hours
#使用external_acl_type实现的自定义认证,后台程序 /etc/squid/squid_external_acl_helper.py
#支持多种宏格式,上面帮助文档里面有列举。
#ipv4标记如果不加,可能会看到“external ACL 'ip_user_check' queue overload”异常(cache.log), >>> https://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2187256
external_acl_type ip_user_check children-startup=5 ipv4 %LOGIN %SRC %MYADDR /usr/bin/python /etc/squid/squid_external_acl_helper.py

acl ipuseracl external ip_user_check
acl auth_users proxy_auth REQUIRED
http_access allow auth_users ipuseracl

后台程序(Helper program)示例脚本(Python):

这里只写了一个框架(直接返回验证通过),没有加入实际性的逻辑判断,你可以根据传递进来的参数实现复杂的逻辑判断。

# coding: utf-8
# squid_external_acl_helper.py
# Author: redice(qi@site-digger.com)
# Created at: 2016-10-14

# Python版本的Squid external_acl_type扩展ACL后台脚本
# 在squid.conf中的"htcp_access deny all"之前加入如下配置:
#external_acl_type ip_user_check children-startup=5 ipv4 %LOGIN %SRC %MYADDR /usr/bin/python /etc/squid/squid_external_acl_helper.py
#acl ipuseracl external ip_user_check
#http_access allow ipuseracl


import sys
import logging

# 记录日志
# sudo chmod 755 /var/log/squid/squid_auth_helper.log
# sudo chown proxy:proxy /var/log/squid/squid_auth_helper.log
logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG,
                    format='%(asctime)s %(levelname)s %(message)s',
                    filename='/var/log/squid/squid_auth_helper.log', filemode='a')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    while True:
        # 从stdin读取一行
        line = sys.stdin.readline()
        username, client_ip, local_ip = line.split()
        logging.info('New auth request: username = {}, client_ip = {}, local_ip = {}'.format(username, client_ip, local_ip))
        # 这里直接输出'OK'(通过认证,反之输出'ERR\n')。你可以根据上述参数实现复杂的认证逻辑。
        sys.stdout.write('OK\n')
        sys.stdout.flush()

日志输出示例:

2016-10-14 12:29:11,968 INFO New auth request: username = test, client_ip = 103.27.125.250, local_ip = 58.96.184.54

特别说明:本文旨在技术交流,请勿将涉及的技术用于非法用途,否则一切后果自负。如果您觉得我们侵犯了您的合法权益,请联系我们予以处理。
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